Linear regression is probably one of the most well known and used algorithms in machine learning.

In this post, I will discuss about how to implement linear regression step by step in R.

Let’s first create our dataset in R that contains only one variable “x1” and the variable that we want to predict “y”.

#Linear regression single variable

data <- data.frame(x1=c(0, 1, 1), y = c(2, 2, 8))

#ScatterPlot

plot(data, xlab=’x1′, ylab=’y’,xlim=c(-3,3), ylim=c(0,10))

We now have three points with coordinates: (0;2),(1;2),(1;8) and we want to dar the best fit line that will best represents our data on a scatter plot.

In the part 1 I will implement the different calculation step to get the best fine using some linear algebra, however, in R we don’t need to do the math as there’s already a bult-in function called “lm” which computes the linear regression calculation.

So, if you just want to use the linear regression function straight away and don’t go through the different step to implement a linear model you can skip the part 1 and go to the part 2. I’d still recommand to undertsand how the algorithm works than just using it.

**Part 1: Linear regression (with linear algebra calculation)**

In order to find the best fit line that minimizes the sum of the square differences between the left and right sides we’ll compute the normal equation:

#Output vector y

y = c(2, 2, 8)

#Input vector x1

x1=c(0, 1, 1)

#Intercept vector (it is simply the value at which the fitted line crosses the y-axis)

x0<-rep(1,nrow(y))

#Let’s create my Y matrix

Y <- as.matrix(data$y)

#Let’s create ny X matrix

X <- as.matrix(cbind(x0,data$x1))

#Let’s compute the normal equation

beta = solve(t(X) %*% X) %*% (t(X) %*% Y)

The result of the normal equation is: 2*x0 +3*x1

The best fit line equation is : 3×1+2 (remember x0 is always 1)

With R we can use the lm function which will do the math for us:

fit <- lm(y~+x1)

We can compare in R if our variable fit and beta are equivalent.

fit:

beta:

Plot the best fit line:

abline(beta) or abline(fit)

We now have our best fit line drwan on our scatterplot btu now we want to find the **coefficient of determination**, denoted R^{2.}

In order to calculate the R squared we need to calculate the “baseline prediction”, the “**residual sum of squares (RSS)**” and the “Total Sum of Squares (SST)”.

**Baseline prediction** is just is the average value of our dependent variable.

(2+2+8)/3 = 4

The mean can also be computed in R as follows :

baseline <- mean(y) or beasline <- sum(y)/nrow(y)

**Residual sum of squares (RSS) or (SSR/SSE) **is the sum of the squares of residuals (deviations predicted from actual empirical values of data). It is a measure of the difference between the data and an estimation model. A small RSS indicates a good fit of the model to the data.

Let’s implement the RSS in R:

#We first get all our values for f(xi)

Ypredict<-predict(fit,data.frame(x1))

#Then we compute the squared difference between y and f(xi) (Ypredict)

RSS<- sum((y – Ypredict)^2) #which gives ((2 – 2)^2 + (2 – 5)^2 + (8 – 5)^2) = 18

**Total Sum of Squares (SST) or (TSS)** is a statistical method which evaluates the sum of the squared difference between the actual X and the mean of X, from the overall mean.^{}

SST<-sum((y-baseline)^2) #baseline is the average of y

We can now calculate the R squared:

RSquare<-1 – (RSS/ SST) #which gives 1 – (18/24)=0.25

**Part2: Quick way (without linear algebra)**

data <- data.frame(x1=c(0, 1, 1), y = c(2, 2, 8))

plot(data, xlab=’x1′, ylab=’y’,xlim=c(-3,3), ylim=c(0,10))

fit <- lm(y~+x1)

abline(fit)

str(summary(fit)) # Will return many information included the R squared